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The Past Form and the Past Participle Form of Regular Verbs

Regular verbs are verbs that form their past and past participle forms by adding d or ed to the base form.

Here are some spelling rules for forming the past form and the past participle form of regular verbs:

  1. For verbs ending in e, add d.

    Base FormPast FormPast Participle Form
    agreeagreedagreed
    believebelievedbelieved
    curecuredcured
    tietiedtied
  2. For one-syllable verbs ending in a vowel plus a consonant other than w, x, or y, double the last consonant and add ed.

    Base FormPast FormPast Participle Form
    banbannedbanned
    clotclottedclotted
    flipflippedflipped
    tagtaggedtagged
  3. For some verbs ending in a vowel plus w, add ed.

    Base FormPast FormPast Participle Form
    flowflowedflowed
    rowrowedrowed
    gnawgnawedgnawed
    pawpawedpawed

    Exceptions: blow, draw, grow, outgrow, overdraw, overthrow, saw, sew, show, sow, strew, throw, withdraw.

  4. For verbs ending in a vowel plus x, add ed.

    Base FormPast FormPast Participle Form
    boxboxedboxed
    mixmixedmixed
    relaxrelaxedrelaxed
  5. For some verbs ending in a vowel plus y, add ed.

    Base FormPast FormPast Participle Form
    displaydisplayeddisplayed
    employemployedemployed
    enjoyenjoyedenjoyed
    relayrelayedrelayed

    Exceptions: buy, gainsay, inlay, lay, mislay, overlay, overpay, pay, prepay, repay, say, slay, underpay, unsay.

  6. For two-syllable verbs ending in a vowel plus a consonant other than w, x, or y, double the last consonant and add ed when the stress is on the last syllable.

    Base FormPast FormPast Participle Form
    occuroccurredoccurred
    permitpermittedpermitted
    preferpreferredpreferred

    The last consonant is not doubled when the stress is on the first syllable.

    Base FormPast FormPast Participle Form
    cancelcanceledcanceled
    glistenglistenedglistened
    mirrormirroredmirrored

    Please note that in British English, the consonant l is doubled, even though the stress is on the first syllable.

    Base FormPast FormPast Participle Form
    cancelcancelledcancelled
    levellevelledlevelled
    marvelmarvelledmarvelled
    ravelravelledravelled
    revelrevelledrevelled
    traveltravelledtravelled
  7. For verbs ending in a consonant plus y, change the y to i and add ed.

    Base FormPast FormPast Participle Form
    crycriedcried
    defydefieddefied
    pitypitiedpitied
    relyreliedrelied
  8. For verbs ending in ic, change the c to ck and add ed.

    Base FormPast FormPast Participle Form
    frolicfrolickedfrolicked
    mimicmimickedmimicked
    panicpanickedpanicked
    picnicpicnickedpicnicked
    traffictraffickedtrafficked
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