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The Present Participle Form (ing-form) of Verbs

The present participle form of a verb is its ing-form.

Base FormPresent Participle Form
hophopping
hopehoping

Here are some spelling rules for forming the present participle form of verbs.

  1. For most verbs ending in a consonant plus e, drop the e and add ing.

    Base FormPresent Participle Form
    hopehoping
    makemaking
    refuserefusing
    strivestriving

    Exceptions:

    Base FormPresent Participle Form
    singesingeing
    tingetingeing
  2. For verbs ending in ee, add ing.

    Base FormPresent Participle Form
    agreeagreeing
    fleefleeing
    seeseeing
  3. For one-syllable verbs ending in a vowel plus a consonant other than w, x, or y, double the last consonant and add ing.

    Base FormPresent Participle Form
    hophopping
    patpatting
    swimswimming
  4. For verbs ending in a vowel plus w, x or y, add ing.

    Base FormPresent Participle Form
    flowflowing
    relaxrelaxing
    staystaying
  5. For two-syllable verbs ending in a vowel plus a consonant, double the last consonant and add ing when the stress is on the last syllable.

    Base FormPresent Participle Form
    admitadmitting
    controlcontrolling
    referreferring

    The last consonant is not doubled when the stress is on the first syllable.

    Base FormPresent Participle Form
    cancelcanceling
    gallopgalloping
    loiterloitering

    Please note that in British English, the consonant l is doubled, even though the stress is on the first syllable.

    Base FormPresent Participle Form
    cancelcancelling
    levellevelling
    marvelmarvelling
    ravelravelling
    revelrevelling
    traveltravelling
  6. For verbs ending in two vowels plus a consonant, add ing.

    Base FormPresent Participle Form
    beepbeeping
    croakcroaking
    eateating
    foulfouling
    toiltoiling
  7. For verbs ending in a consonant plus y, add ing.

    Base FormPresent Participle Form
    fryfrying
    pitypitying
  8. For verbs ending in ie, change the ie to y and add ing.

    Base FormPresent Participle Form
    diedying
    lielying
    tietying
  9. For verbs ending in oe or ye, add ing.

    Base FormPresent Participle Form
    shoeshoeing
    toetoeing
    dyedyeing
  10. For verbs ending in c, change the c to ck and add ing.

    Base FormPresent Participle Form
    frolicfrolicking
    mimicmimicking
    panicpanicking
    picnicpicnicking
    traffictrafficking
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